The Strange Saga

of Gregory Hemingway





The tragic death in 2001 of Ernest Hemingway's son revealed him/her to have long been addicted to fetishistic transvestism. At some point Gregory had one breast implanted and later on underwent SRS. However, he only occasionally dressed as a woman in public, and was referred to by the Hemingway family as Gregory (rather than Gloria or Vanessa, names he sometimes used when dressed as a female). Even after SRS he usually appeared in public as a man, as in this photo with his wife Ida, in 1999. Such is often the case when a fetishistic man undergoes SRS but doesn't have any deep need to take on a female social role. For more about other cases of such transition failures after SRS, see Lynn's SRS Warning Page.



10-04-01:  Obituaries for Gregory Hemingway


11-19-01:  Chicago Tribune Article - The Son Also Falls


09-22-03:  Gender of Hemingway's son at center of feud


07-04-99:  Photo of Hemingway and wife Ida, after his "sex change"


Obituaries for Gregory Hemingway


Gregory Hemingway, Ernest Hemingway's youngest son, dies in jail cell at 69

ASSOCIATED PRESS October 4, 2001


MIAMI - Novelist Ernest Hemingway's troubled youngest son died of natural causes in a jail cell. He was 69.

Gregory Hemingway, a former doctor also known as Gloria Hemingway, was found dead at 5:45 a.m. Monday, said Janelle Hall, a spokeswoman for the county corrections department. He had been arrested last week, at least his third arrest in the county.

He often dressed as a woman, and Hall said jail officials had classified him as a woman and believe he had undergone a sex change operation. He died in the women's section of the jail.

Police said family members, whose names they did not make public, confirmed the deceased was Ernest Hemingway's son.

The elder Hemingway killed himself in 1961. A book Gregory Hemingway wrote about his father, "Papa: A Personal Memoir," was published in 1976. It had a preface by Norman Mailer.

In 1997, Hemingway joined with his brothers, Jack and Patrick, in battling the organizers of the sometimes rowdy Hemingway Days celebration in Key West. They said they wanted a more dignified gathering and royalty payments. The celebration was canceled but then revived. Jack Hemingway, who also wrote a memoir of his father, died last year.

Gregory Hemingway's daughter is Lorian Hemingway, author of such books as "Walk on Water: A Memoir."

But alcohol and other problems stalked his life.

"My mother suffered severe brain damage as a result of a car accident directly related to her addiction," Lorian Hemingway has written. "My father lost his medical license for the same reason." Gregory Hemingway had been arrested last week on Key Biscayne, charged with indecent exposure and resisting arrest without violence after a park ranger reported a pedestrian with no clothes on.

He appeared to be drunk or otherwise impaired, said the arresting officer, Nelia Real. "He had no shoes and he had a dress and high heels in his hands," Real said.

"I feel really bad that that happened. He was a very nice guy."

Homicide detectives ruled the death was due to natural causes. The autopsy report listed hypertension and cardiovascular disease, officials said according to Miami-Dade police spokesman Juan DelCastillo. Miami-Dade court records show that he had been arrested in 1996 on an aggravated assault charge and in 1995 on a charge of battery on an officer. The outcome of those cases was not immediately available.

Hemingway, son of the author and his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer, was born in Kansas City, Mo., on Nov. 12, 1931.

In 1999, Hemingway spoke at the dedication of the Hemingway-Pfeiffer museum in Piggott, Ark., in what had been the Pfeiffer family home. He remarked that his father "is quite fortunate in having just about every place he ever lived in immortalized."

Ernest Hemingway's Son Gregory Dies
By Terry Spencer
Associated Press Writer

Thursday, Oct. 4, 2001; 5:27 p.m. EDT

MIAMI -- Gregory Hemingway, the youngest son of macho novelist Ernest Hemingway, died a transsexual by the name of Gloria in a cell at a women's jail, authorities said. He was 69.

Hemingway - a former doctor who wrote a well-received book about his father, "Papa: A Personal Memoir" - was found dead Monday of what the medical examiner's office said was high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease.

He had been arrested last week, at least his third arrest in the county. He was in jail awaiting a court appearance on charges of indecent exposure and resisting arrest without violence.

Janelle Hall, a spokeswoman for the county corrections department, said Hemingway had undergone a sex-change operation. Hall said she did not know when.
Key Biscayne police had arrested Hemingway at a park on Sept. 25 afer finding him putting on his underwear. He was carrying a dress and high-heeled shoes. He appeared intoxicated or mentally impaired, officer Nelia Real said.

"He said his name was Gloria," Real said. "He looked like a man, but his nails were painted and he was wearing jewelry and makeup. ... He was very nice to me. At times he was very coherent, but other times he didn't make any sense."

The son of the author and his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer, was born in Kansas City, Mo., and graduated from the University of Miami Medical School. The elder Hemingway committed suicide in 1961.

In Gregory Hemingway's 1976 book, which had a preface by Norman Mailer, the novelist's son wrote: "I never got over a sense of responsibility for my father's death. And the recollection of it sometimes made me act in strange ways."

Hemingway's Florida medical license was revoked in 1988 after Montana authorities would not renew his license to practice in that state. His daughter, Lorian Hemingway, wrote a 1992 memoir, "Walk on Water," in which she said her father lost his medical license because of an addiction.

Hemingway was married four times. His last marriage, in 1992, ended in divorce in 1995.

Hemingway, whose last known address was in Miami's Coconut Grove, had been arrested at least three times in the mid-1990s on charges including battery on a police officer and aggravated assault. The outcome of those cases was not immediately available.

In 1997, Hemingway joined with his brothers, Jack and Patrick, in battling the organizers of the sometimes rowdy Hemingway Days celebration in Key West. They said they wanted a more dignified gathering and royalty payments. The celebration was canceled but then revived. Jack Hemingway, who also wrote a memoir of his father, died last year.


© Copyright 2001 The Associated Press

Friday October 5 8:22 AM ET

Gregory Hemingway, Son of Writer, Dies in Miami
By Angus MacSwan

MIAMI (Reuters) - Gregory Hemingway, whose troubled relationship with his late father, writer Ernest Hemingway, led him to a tormented life of drink and depression, has died in Miami, officials said on Thursday.

It was another sad chapter in the story of the literary lion's family.

Hemingway, 69, died of natural causes in a Miami jail after being arrested for indecent exposure.

He was picked up last Wednesday after walking naked down the street in Key Biscayne, a Miami island community, carrying a pair of black high heels and wearing jewelry, police said.

``He had a difficult life. It's not easy to be the son of a great man,'' Scott Donaldson, president of the Hemingway Society, told Reuters.

Gregory, younger brother to Jack and Patrick, struggled to cope with the burden. A transvestite who later had a sex-change operation, he suffered bouts of drinking, depression and drifting, according to acquaintances.

``I don't know how it was done, the destruction,'' he said in a 1987 interview with the Washington Post. ``What is it about a loving, dominating, basically well-intentioned father that makes you end up going nuts?''

At the time of his death, he lived in the Coconut Grove district where he was well-known to its Bohemian crowd. He sometimes went by the name of Gloria and wore women's clothes.

Last Wednesday, he was reported walking naked through Key Biscayne. When an officer arrived, he was sitting on a curb trying to put on a flowered thong, the police report said.

He had a hospital gown wrapped around his shoulder but was exposing a breast and his genitals, it said. When the officer tried to arrest him, he screamed and refused to be handcuffed.

He gave the name Greg Hemingway, then later changed it to Gloria, the report added.


Taken to the Miami-Dade Women's Detention Center, he was found dead in his cell early on Monday, spokeswoman Janelle Hall said. The cause of death was hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

He had been due to appear in court later that day on charges of indecent exposure and resisting arrest. He was booked into the women's jail because he had a sex-change operation, Hall added.

Strange and tragic deaths have haunted the Hemingway family.

Ernest, the Nobel Prize-winning author who was almost as famous for his adventurous life as for works like ``The Old Man and the Sea'' and ``The Sun Also Rises,'' shot himself in 1961. Ernest's father, brother and sister also committed suicide.

Actress and model Margaux Hemingway, Jack's daughter, was found dead in Santa Monica in 1996 at the age of 41 after battles with alcohol, drugs and depression.

Gregory was born in Kansas City in 1931. His mother was Hemingway's second wife Pauline. He lived his early years in Key West.

``In many ways he was the most talented as a boy -- he was a wonderful shooter. He won pigeon-shooting competitions down in Cuba,'' Donaldson said.

In the Post interview, Hemingway spoke about the pressures of trying to live up to the expectations of his macho father. He once killed 18 elephants on a safari in Africa.

`Yes, I had the most talent. I was the brightest, I could do so many of the things he loved most,'' he said. He also said his father knew about his cross-dressing.

``I've spent hundreds of thousands of dollars trying not to be a transvestite. It's a combination of things -- first you've got this father who's super-masculine but who's somehow protesting it all the time. He's worried to death about it.''


Known to the family as Gigi, he attended the University of Miami medical school. He later practiced medicine, including a period as a country physician in Montana, but lost his license as he wrestled with alcohol and his personal demons.

He said he had received electric shock treatment many times and had several nervous breakdowns. He sometimes drifted, living in cars, motels or friends' houses.
But family and acquaintances remembered him as a man who could be charming, kind and brilliant on his good days.

``I loved him and he was a good man,'' said his daughter Lorian Hemingway from her home in Seattle.

``He was a man of great compassion and self-searching, and he bore the necessary cross of being human. I believe the thing he wanted most of all was to please others and to be loved,'' said Lorian, whose book ``Walk on Water'' was nominated for the 1999 Pulitzer Prize.

``Everything in his life was troubled. He was troubled by his relationship with his father, with his mother,'' said one acquaintance. ``I would say he was tormented.''

He married four times, the last time in Key West in 1992 in a ceremony in the old Hemingway house. That marriage ended in divorce in 1995, according to the Miami Herald. He is believed to have had six children.

In letters to his father, Gregory called him an ``ailing alcoholic'' and derided ``The Old Man and the Sea'' as ''sentimental slop.''

In Ernest's book ``Islands in the Stream,'' novelist Thomas Hudson's son Andy -- ``the meanest'' -- is based on Gregory.

Gregory wrote about their relationship in a book ``Papa: A Personal Memoir,'' published in 1976, which opened: ``I never got over the sense of responsibility for my father's death and the recollection of it sometimes made me act in strange ways.''

But he also spoke of the good times, like playing war games in the yard of the Key West house.


From elephant hunter to bejeweled exhibitionist, the tortured life of Gregory Hemingway.

By Nara Schoenberg CHICAGO TRIBUNE

November 19, 2001


ON HIS last night as a free man, Ernest Hemingway's youngest son slipped on a demure black cocktail dress and made his way to a small private party in the upscale Miami enclave of Coconut Grove.

He introduced himself to friends as "Vanessa" and spent much of the evening in the kitchen, chatting with millionaires in country club attire. Guests say he didn't get drunk. He seemed to be in good spirits.

"The odd thing about it was, he looked happy," says writer Peter Myers, who had never seen his old friend dressed as a woman before.

"I'd say he looked about 20 years younger. He looked comfortable." But things took a rapid turn for the worse, as things often did in the life of Gregory Hemingway, a doctor who had lost his medical license, a writer who hadn't published a book in 20 years, a husband who had been divorced from four wives.

Less than 24 hours after he successfully introduced his female identity to some of his oldest and most respectable Florida friends, he resurfaced in the nearby community of Key Biscayne.

Perhaps he wanted to celebrate his triumph at a local bar, a friend says. Maybe he intended to take a walk on the beach.

What is clear is that at about 4 p.m. the next day, Sept. 25, the burly transsexual was seen parading down a main Key Biscayne thoroughfare, naked, with a dress and heels in his hand. Taken into custody by an officer who described him as "very nice" and perhaps mentally unstable, he was charged with indecent exposure and resisting arrest without violence.

After a medical exam showed he had undergone a sex change, he was jailed - on a mere $1,000 bail - at the Miami-Dade Women's Detention Center.

On Oct. 1, his sixth day in jail, Hemingway, who suffered from high blood pressure and heart disease, rose early for a court appearance, began to dress and suddenly collapsed in his underwear onto the concrete floor.

The third son of the 20th century's most resolutely macho literary figure had died, at age 69, in a women's jail.

Gregory Hemingway's journey from elephant hunter to bejeweled exhibitionist, from the boy who appeared to have everything to the prisoner in cell 3-C2, was long and winding, marked by many detours and numerous contradictions.

On this much, however, friends and family agree: He suffered from manic depression, a form of mental illness. Even in a family tormented by chemical imbalance - Gregory's father, paternal grandfather, uncle, aunt and niece all committed suicide - the man who sometimes called himself Gloria was notably tormented.

"He had hundreds of shock treatments, and he kind of got to like them," says Jeffrey Meyers, who wrote one of several major biographies of Ernest Hemingway. "It was like an addiction. Most people are terrified of shock treatments. If you read Sylvia Plath's 'The Bell Jar,' it's not something you would willingly do."

There are many who remember Gregory Hemingway as unfailingly gentle and generous, but when he was in the manic - or euphoric - stage of his disease he could be reckless, even violent. He had a string of arrests in Florida and Montana, where he spent his winters, including one in which he threatened to expose himself and kicked a police officer in the groin.

Other factors in Hemingway's decline, his associates say, may have included a chaotic childhood, a complex relationship with his mother and a sometimes overwhelming desire for acknowledgment from his famous father.

And then there were the dresses.

At the heart of Hemingway's tangled tale was a lifelong flirtation with femininity that enraged Ernest, that epitome of swaggering American machismo, and led to a series of father-son confrontations that scarred Gregory as a boy and haunted him as an adult.

The battles date back to at least the early 1940s, when, according to Gregory's friend, the poet Donald Junkins, Ernest walked in on Gregory - then about 10 - while his athletic young son, the skeet shooter with the mischievous grin, was trying on his stepmother Martha Gellhorn's dress and nylons. Ernest "went berserk," Junkins says.

Father and son appear to have remained close for several years after that, with Ernest even tutoring the boy he called Gig for a career as a writer. But by the time Gregory was 19, he and Ernest were locked in bloody psychological warfare over the lure of silk and taffeta.

It was a battle that would span much of the son's life and continue for decades after the father's death.


Ernest Hemingway was a man who got what he wanted: the biggest fish, the prettiest girl, the Nobel Prize. And in 1931, the man they called "Papa" wanted a daughter.

The birth of a third son, Gregory Hancock Hemingway, on Nov. 12, was an added complication in an already shaky marriage.

"My father had wanted a daughter badly," Greg wrote in his 1976 book, "Papa, a Personal Memoir." "So to my mother, my birth meant that she, or perhaps I, had blown this last chance to make her lovable egomaniac happy." His mother, Pauline Pfeiffer, the second of Hemingway's four wives, left much of Greg's early upbringing to a "'verness" named Ada, who, according to Greg, tended to respond to even minor misbehavior by screaming, packing her bags, and fleeing down the stairs. His father was a warmer figure, and although he was frequently absent - reporting, writing and romancing his next wife - Greg adored him.

Strong, stocky and keenly intelligent, the dark-eyed boy, who fed ducks tenderly and shot them accurately, in many ways resembled his father, who once said Greg "has the biggest dark side in the family, except me." Father and son shared a similar steely determination, and by age 11, Greg was showing signs of the same athletic gifts.

That was when Ernest entered his son in the Cuban pigeon-shooting championship. Greg defeated more than 140 contestants, including some of the best wing shots in the world, to tie for top honors. There were articles about him in the Havana newspapers. His father was thrilled. But if there was triumph, there was also tumult.

Ernest ran through four wives by the time Greg was 15. He drank heavily and allowed his young son to do the same. Greg recalls in his memoir having his father cheerfully prescribe him a Bloody Mary - the boy was maybe 12 - as a cure for a hangover.

The conflict over cross-dressing had worsened by 1951, when, according to the standard account of Hemingway family history, Greg, then 19, got in trouble over his use of a mind-altering drug.

THE incident prompted Ernest to lash out viciously at Greg's mother, Pauline, in a bitter phone call. The story might have ended there, but unbeknown to anyone, Pauline had a rare tumor of the adrenal gland that can cause a deadly surge of adrenaline in times of stress. Within hours of the phone call with Ernest, she had died of shock on a hospital operating table.

Ernest blamed his son for Pauline's death, and Greg, who was deeply disturbed by the accusation, never saw his father alive again.

That basic chronology is not in dispute, but the biographer, Meyers, now acknowledges that there was an element missing. It wasn't Greg's drug or alcohol use that caused Ernest to berate Pauline shortly before she died, he told the Tribune. "I had to cover that over a little bit in my book, because I was very close to the family and I really couldn't wound them ..." Meyers says. "But Ernest knew about Gregory's cross-dressing way back in '51, and that was the cause of the dispute; not, I think I called it, drug-taking or drinking." After his mother's death, Greg, apparently depressed, interrupted his pre-med studies and retreated to Africa, where he drank too much and shot elephants - at one point 18 in a single month.

It wasn't until nearly a decade later, in 1960, that he felt strong enough to resume his medical studies and respond to Ernest's charges. He wrote his father a bitter letter, detailing the medical facts of his mother's death and blaming Ernest for the tragedy.

Within months, Ernest showed serious signs of mental illness. The next year, he would kill himself, and once again Greg would wrestle with guilt over the death of a parent.

"I never got over a sense of responsibility for my father's death," he wrote in his memoir, "and the recollection of it sometimes made me act in strange ways."


If Greg was devastated by the death of his father, he also confessed to a profound sense of relief. As the body was lowered into the ground, he reflected that never again would he disappoint the old man.

What followed was perhaps the most productive period of Greg's life. He graduated from the University of Miami School of Medicine in 1964, and married what was by now his third wife, Valery Danby- Smith, the mother of three of his eight children. Living in New York and Montana, he practiced medicine, the profession of his paternal grandfather.

"He was a physician at heart," says his eldest daughter, Lorian, 49, a writer. "The passion was there." In 1976, he published his book about life with his father. Compassionate but unflinching, it opened with an admiring introduction by Norman Mailer and is still highly regarded by Hemingway scholars.

Precisely when Greg's demons caught up with him is unclear, but by the early 1980s, the storm clouds were gathering. Meyers, who spent a week with Greg and Valery while researching his book on Ernest in 1983, recalls that Greg's marriage was breaking up and he was acting in peculiar, and sometimes reckless, ways.

"He was very good-looking. He was very smart. I mean, you could have some interesting talks with him. He was also, always, very crazy," Meyers says.

By the early 1990s, Greg's finances were so precarious - he was routinely spending every dime of the checks he received monthly from the family estate - he at one point lived in his beat-up Volkswagen. Apparently considering a sex change, he had gone so far as to have a single breast implant, leaving the other side of his chest flat.

He and Valery had been divorced, and his medical license had been suspended in both Montana and Florida - the reason is not known because officials in Montana, where the licensing problems originated, say they have lost the records.

But when he and Junkins, a Hemingway scholar and retired University of Massachusetts English professor, began running into each other socially in Miami in 1991, it wasn't his present problems that Greg wanted to talk about. It was his past.

He told Junkins, who would later serve as best man at Greg's fourth wedding, about the fit Ernest threw when he caught Greg cross-dressing as a boy.

"Gregory was 60 years old, and this is the first thing he tells me," Junkins says. "He says he never got over it: the raging wrath of his father." Thirty years after his death, Ernest Hemingway was back in his son's life.


By 1995, the final showdown between father and son was well under way, with Greg rejecting not only his father's hyper-masculine code of conduct, but masculinity itself, in an act that some consider courageous and others depict as the final, desperate act of an unbalanced mind.

For the most part, Hemingway lived as a man after his sex change. He had the same deep voice, the same muscular build. Rather than adding a second breast implant, he had the first removed at some point in the 1990s.

He stayed with his fourth wife, Ida Mae Galliher, a fine-featured blonde who drove a Mercedes convertible and was much admired by Coconut Grove's graying jet-setters. Florida records show the couple divorced in 1995, after about two years of marriage, but friends say they continued to live together in Ida's gated coral-rock cottage.

"He was a very heterosexual guy, I guarantee it," Junkins says. "He and Ida weren't putting polish on each other's nails." Ida, who declined to be interviewed for this article, told the Miami Herald shortly after Greg's death that she and Greg remarried in Washington state in 1997.

Hemingway mostly went by the name Greg or Gregory in the Grove, where he frequented the Taurus Ale House, a neighborhood bar and restaurant, in men's attire.

"He'd hang out in the afternoon, drink beer with us and talk," recalls Taurus regular Charley Brown, 62, a writer. "And he was just one of the guys." Rumors about Greg's personal life did flourish, and occasionally he would be spotted cross-dressing. But in resolutely artsy, often bizarre Coconut Grove, Greg Hemingway wasn't the most unusual guy in the bar.

"Not by a long shot," Brown says.

Hemingway's apparent reluctance to let go of his male identity could be explained by many factors, among them the potential for embarrassment. But it does seem a remarkable coincidence that, in getting a sex change, Greg chose perhaps the one path most likely to pain and embarrass his father - and then went on living his life much as before.

It's also interesting to note that when he did assert his femininity, he sometimes seemed more interested in creating a spectacle than completing a process of sincere self-transformation.

Perhaps the most dramatic example of that occurred in 1995, when Hemingway, then 64, boarded a Miami bus, made a series of sexual advances toward the male driver and threatened to break his jaw.

When police arrived, Hemingway was standing outside an Amoco station, dressed in women's clothing and talking incoherently. Pulling up his skirt, he said to one of the officers, "Let me show you that I'm a woman." The police officer reminded him he was in public and told him to put down his skirt. Hemingway responded by kicking the cop in the groin. It took three police officers to handcuff Hemingway, who pleaded guilty to a felony charge of battery on a police officer, but was never convicted.


The Miami-Dade Women's Detention Center is a long way from the Miami of snow-white sailboats and gated Spanish mansions where Greg Hemingway celebrated the running of the bulls at the annual Pamplona Party in Coconut Grove.

A battered pay phone stands outside the center, a bland, four-story building framed by scrub grass, a highway overpass and a series of rusty pipes enclosed in a chain-link fence.

Inside, the faint smell of disinfectant lingers in a pale green lobby with peach trim. A row of broad- shouldered, unsmiling women play volleyball in a narrow courtyard.

Hemingway, who was examined by a corrections medical staff, was classified as female and assigned here "basically because of his genital organs," according to Janelle Hall, a spokeswoman for the Miami-Dade corrections department. "It would have been an injustice to hold him in a male facility," she says.

Hemingway, who died of heart disease and high blood pressure on Oct. 1, spent the last days of his life on the third floor, in a private cell used for high- profile inmates. The room is 10 feet by 10 feet, with a steel cot and two narrow windows.

Staff recall him as "a very big, robust, very learned sort of person," Hall says. "He did not give us any problems." At the jail, his death was just another in the long series of hard-luck tales common to the place. To the outside world - his obituary, which referred to his sex change and various psychological problems, ran in publications across the country - it may have seemed a scandal and sensation.

But in Coconut Grove, where Hemingway was well known and well liked, it was a tragedy, a tragedy that some say could have been prevented.

Standing outside the house where Ida Hemingway still lives, handyman Terry Fox speaks of his friend Greg in the present tense as he fixes the automatic gate Greg smashed with his car shortly before his death.

"I don't think they should do that to him, ya know?" he says of Hemingway's incarceration. "We're real upset about that. I mean, the average burglar gets out the next day."

Lorian Hemingway goes further, claiming that her father didn't receive vital medication while in jail.

"I do not know to whom to assign blame," she says, "But I think his having been incarcerated for five days on a bail of a mere $1,000 and having his life end because he could not have the medication he needed is a criminal act, outright." Ida Hemingway told the Miami Herald that she called the jail repeatedly, but that she didn't bail Greg out because she thought he needed help.

Hall declined to comment on whether Hemingway received his high blood pressure medication in jail, citing inmate confidentiality. Larry Cameron, director of operations for the Miami-Dade Medical Examiner Department, declined to comment on medical details, saying Ida Hemingway had requested that the family's privacy be respected.

Greg Hemingway apparently did not contact his friends, several of whom said they would have been more than happy to supply the $100, or 10 percent, required to secure his release on bond.


Guests cried openly at Greg's small, private memorial service in Coconut Grove. Hemingway's children spoke of the good times.

"These kids adored him. It says a lot about Gregory," Junkins says. "They know everything. Of course they do. You know, he was their father."

Exiting the turn-of-the-century Spanish mission church where the service was held, glancing back at the twin splashes of hot-pink bougainvillea framing the front door, it must have been easy for those who attended to think comforting thoughts about God, nature and the afterlife.

But it's not at all clear that the deceased himself would have taken refuge in such consolation.

If he had proved one thing during his long and torturous battle with his father's shadow, it was that he, too, was a Hemingway: stubborn and self-destructive, but also fierce and uncompromising.

Forty years before, he had considered voicing comforting cliches at his own father's funeral, he wrote in his memoir.

He had envisioned the old man alive, aware and dreaming, a spirit united at last with earth and sky.

But, he wrote, such visions seemed small to him, and their comfort shallow. And his father would have considered such visions absurd.

"Atoms can't dream, Gig," he could hear his father say. "No use deluding yourself, old pal."


Chicago Tribune is a Tribune Co. newspaper.



A Family History

IT'S SAFE to say there are few families as fascinating as the Hemingways. Here is a brief look at some of the family members and their lives and their problems:

Start, of course, with Ernest. Regarded as one of America's greatest authors, he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and the Nobel Prize a year later. His adventures included driving a Red Cross ambulance during World War I, covering the Spanish Civil War as a news correspondent and living in Africa, where he went on countless safaris and survived two plane crashes. All pretty macho stuff. But he also was the boy whose mother, Grace, dressed him and his older sister, Marcelline, as twins. Some speculate that was the root of Ernest's attitude toward women - he long resented Grace and refused to attend her funeral, married four times and had countless affairs. He died in 1961, the victim of a self-inflicted shotgun wound, after years of physical and mental problems. He was 61.

Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, Ernest's father, took his own life in 1928. Suffering from diabetes and depression and facing debts, he shot himself to death with a Civil War pistol. He was 57 years old.

Grace Hall Hemingway, Ernest's mother, was a former singer and music teacher. She was extremely protective of her first son. As he grew older, he rebelled against her nurturing - and later against her criticism of his work. To friends, he referred to her as "the bitch." She died in 1951 at 79.

Marcelline Hemingway was Ernest's older sister and the sibling to whom he was closest. She maintained a famous correspondence with her brother for many years. Marcelline died in 1963, two years after Ernest. She was 65.

Ursula Hemingway Jepson, Ernest's younger sister, having survived three cancer operations, committed suicide with a drug overdose in 1966. She was 64.

Another sibling, brother Leicester Clarence Hemingway, 67, shot himself to death in 1982 after a series of health problems.

Carol Hemingway Gardner, Ernest's youngest sister, was estranged from her brother after he objected to her choice of fiance and she married the young man anyway. She today is the last surviving Hemingway sibling.

Madelaine Hemingway Miller, nicknamed "Sunny," typed portions of her brother's novel "A Farewell to Arms," and later played the harp with the Memphis Symphony. She died in 1995 at the age of 90.

Jack Hemingway, Ernest's oldest son, had a pretty interesting life in his own right. His godparents were Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas, whom Ernest had befriended in Paris in the '20s; his early days were recounted in his father's "A Moveable Feast"; he was a decorated World War II veteran who spent six months in a German POW camp; and he wrote several books, including one about his father, and three on fishing. He died in 2000 of complications following heart surgery. He was 77.

All of Hemingway's former wives are deceased. Martha Gellhorn, his third wife, died most recently, in February 1998. Gregory's mother, Pauline Pfeiffer Hemingway, died in 1951 at age 56 of an undiagnosed tumor.

Actress/model Margaux Hemingway, 41-year-old daughter of Jack, died of a drug overdose in 1996. Her younger sister, Mariel, continues to appear in films and on TV.

Hemingway's sole surviving child is son Patrick, born in 1928. He continues to promote his father's memory as a member of the advisory board of the Hemingway Foundation of Oak Park.

Chicago Tribune



Date: Mon, 22 Sep 2003
Subject: Another for your gregory/gloria fiasco page
From: Andrea James
To: Lynn Conway
Posted on Mon, Sep. 22, 2003
Gender of Hemingway's son at center of feud
Ernest Hemingway's son had a sex change and became Gloria.
Now his eight children and his wife are fighting over his estate.

Patrick Hemingway hadn't seen his father in more than a year when the two met at a Missoula, Mont., motel in June 1996.

The son knew things would be different. Still, he didn't know exactly how different, until he saw Gregory Hemingway -- doctor, writer, elephant-slayer and son of Ernest -- perched on a bed in a dirty-blonde wig, a blue dress, pearl necklace and high-heeled pumps. He'd had a sex change.

''It was a little unsettling,'' Patrick recalls. ``I didn't know how to address him.''

The anguish over gender identity that drove Gregory Hemingway to become Gloria Hemingway has outlived him to become a bitter legal battle between Gregory's eight children and Gloria's wife. They are fighting over his estate.

At issue are the types of questions rarely arbitrated in a South Florida courtroom: When he died Oct. 1, 2001, at the Women's Annex of the Miami-Dade County Jail, was Gregory the sex he was born into, or the one into which he changed? And, if Hemingway was, indeed, a woman, could the marriage to another woman be legally valid?

Florida law does not recognize same-sex marriages, which could nullify a will leaving much of Hemingway's estate to Ida Hemingway, whom he married in 1992, divorced in 1995, and then remarried in 1997, after having undergone the sex change. (The ceremony, conducted by a judge, took place in Washington state and Hemingway is identified as Gregory on the marriage certificate.)


These are not small questions. The estate of Gregory Hemingway contains about $7 million.

A 1994 will, submitted for probate on Oct. 30, 2001 by Gregory's children, leaves most of his estate to five of the kids. But another will, submitted eight months later by Ida Hemingway, leaves the bulk of his assets to her. Her attorney claims the will is an expression of Gregory's desire to provide for her, regardless of the validity of the marriage.

At a hearing last month, Miami-Dade Circuit Judge Arthur Rothenberg gave attorneys 45 days to write briefs before he decides whether to accept the later will.

''You may hear argument about this marriage not being a valid marriage,'' Nicholas Cristin, a Miami attorney for Ida Hemingway, said at an April hearing. ``These two people certainly thought they were married.''

Joe Gonzalez, an attorney for some of Gregory's children, argued, however, that both Ida and Gregory Hemingway also thought they were women.

''[Gregory] had female genitalia,'' Gonzalez said. ``So two people with female genitalia married each other. I suspect that, under the law, that's not a valid marriage.''

Rothenberg's decision almost certainly will blaze new trails in an already evolving legal landscape in Florida.

Last February, a senior family court judge in Pinellas County ruled that a transsexual named Michael Kantaras -- who had been born Margo Kantaras -- was legally a man and granted Kantaras custody of an adopted child, and a second child conceived with his wife through donated sperm.

The dispute between Ida Hemingway and Gregory's children is contained in hundreds of pages of court pleadings and sworn statements at the Miami-Dade County Courthouse. The records suggest that underlying the battle of Gregory's estate lies a long-simmering resentment.

Ida and Gregory Hemingway had been married, though the marriage was on rocky terrain, in late September 2001 when Gregory left the couple's Bozeman, Mont., ranch for Miami. On Sept. 26, he was arrested for indecent exposure in Key Biscayne while walking down the road naked, a pair of women's pumps in his hand; he died Oct. 1, 2001, of heart failure, found slumped on the floor of the Women's Annex.

An obituary days later in Time magazine eulogized the son of Ernest Hemingway, one of America's most masculine writers, as ``Gloria Hemingway.''

Ida accuses some of the children of abandoning a father they considered unseemly.

The children accuse Ida of exploiting a man who was sick and dependent, persuading him to disinherit his own children -- as his father had done to him.

Ida, who met Hemingway at a party in Coconut Grove celebrating the annual Running of the Bulls in Pamploma, Spain, reserves her most biting comments for Lorian Hemingway, the oldest of Gregory Hemingway's children, and a successful storyteller in her own right. Her 1998 Walk on Water was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and a National Book Award.

In a March 14 deposition, Ida Hemingway called the memoir a ''crummy book'' that sought to exploit her father's ``weaknesses.''

''Her description of him . . . being dirty and greasy-haired and his car [being] full of beer cans -- that is not a nice light to put your father in,'' Ida said.

In her sworn statement, Lorian insists her father, who authored the 1976 bestseller Papa: A Personal Memoir, had sought late in life to make peace with his children.

''Ida would not allow my father to have contact with his children [and] tried to keep him from being in touch with his children and with his friends.'' she said in a sworn statement.

'She kept him from receiving what he needed in jail and said, `let him rot in jail,' '' Lorian said. 'You know, `Let him stay there. Maybe this will teach him a lesson.' ''


Patrick Hemingway, a professional photographer from Vancouver, said in court papers his father, who suffered from bipolar disorder and often was depressed, remained with Ida because he feared he could not take care of himself alone.

''Ida was very abusive to my father, and they argued a lot,'' he wrote. ``He would confide in me that Ida did not love him, and when Ida would come in the room he would change the subject.''

Patrick said he was particularly surprised -- and disappointed -- by the latter will because Ida had assured him in 1996 that Gregory Hemingway did not intend to disinherit his children -- Lorian, Brendan, Vanessa, Sean, Edward, Patrick, John and Maria.

'She said, `I've seen the will. Don't worry, you kids will all be taken care of.' I thought this strange, because I was not worried,'' Patrick said.


© 2003 The Miami Herald and wire service sources. All Rights Reserved.


Date: Mon, 22 Sep 2003
Subject: More on Hemingway
From: Andrea James
To: Lynn Conway

This picture was taken after the supposed “sex change.” More proof that there are a group of people like Anne Lawrence who get modifications to their bodies with no interest in a social role. Many seem to be wealthy (especially “professionals,” i.e. doctors and lawyers) and in midlife crisis.


"Dr. Gregory Hemingway and his wife, Ida, strike a pose as Bonnie and Clyde during the grand opening celebration of the Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum and Educational Center in Piggott, Ark., in this July 4, 1999 file photo. Hemingway, novelist Ernest Hemingway's youngest son, died of natural causes in jail, a newspaper reported. He was 69. Bill Templeton Associated Press Published October 4, 2001
Copyright 2003 Star Tribune. All rights reserved."